(Chicopee 1856 - Chicopee Public Library)
The following is an abridged version of an article which originally appeared in North and South magazine, June 2006.
The American Civil War came to Chicopee, Massachusetts not as a battlefield, but in the form of textile mills, an arms manufacturer, and over 700 military volunteers. This community illustrated Northern Civil War experience in microcosm.
Chicopee’s most prominent family, called Ames, profited by the war, and was struck down by financial hardship as well as personal tragedy at the war’s end.
Ironically, while the Ames Manufacturing Company produced weaponry for a war to put down Southern rebellion and would bring an end to slavery, across the street and sharing the same canal for water power was a cotton textile mill that thrived on the existence of slavery to grow and harvest the cotton cheaply. It was town, and a time, full of paradox.
Correspondence which crossed the desk of James T. Ames, the factory’s owner, included this typical letter from Alfred Barbour, Superintendent of the Harper’s Ferry Armory, dated December 17, 1860.
You will please furnish for the Harper’s Ferry Armory one hundred
and twenty tons of Marshal iron in molds or shapes suitable for
rolling into barrels; as you have heretofore furnished. The price will
be two hundred dollars per ton….” (1)
Soon, there would be no more orders from the South with the coming hostilities, and the U.S. Government due to the loss of Southern arsenals would come to depend more upon the independent manufacturer. (2) By 1864, the Ames Manufacturing Company would be the among the Union’s most important private manufacturers of side arms, swords, and light artillery, and the third largest producer of heavy ordnance. (3)
The coming war would create a maelstrom of contradiction for James T. Ames. He was already a prominent man in Chicopee, and representing an industry which was now of top importance to the United States government once the Southern states seceded, but he also turned a profit selling to the soon-to-be enemy before the embargo on such sales was enforced. As the above letter illustrates, Ames swords were purchased by the states of Virginia, Mississippi, Maryland, and Georgia as late as 1860. (4) War, by this time and to most people, seemed unavoidable, and these customers would soon be the enemy.
For James T. Ames, the coming war meant another personal conflict, with his friend James H. Burton of the Richmond Armory, a man whom he had helped to obtain the position of Master Armorer at Richmond. By June 1861, Burton had been appointed Lieutenant Colonel of Ordnance of Virginia, and in December, he was appointed Superintendent of Armories of the Confederate States of America. (5)
Another contradiction was that Ames’ factory would produce the most modern ordnance then known, yet such weaponry would tear to pieces men still incongruously brandishing as weapons James T. Ames’ most renown product, the Ames sword.
(Ames Mfg. Co., 1860s - Edward Bellamy Memorial Association, Chicopee, MA)
The Ames Company had come a long way. A family blacksmith, cutlery and tool shop begun in Chelmsford, Massachusetts, sons Nathan P. Ames, Jr. and James T. Ames brought the business to a new manufacturing village on the Chicopee River in the Western Massachusetts town of Springfield in 1829 at the invitation of Edmund Dwight, whose family owned huge textile mill concerns, land and water rights on the river. The Dwights offered Ames four years rent free, and the Ames Company continued their tool and cutlery business, and also repaired the cotton textile machinery for Dwight’s mills. It was a short step from edged tools to edged weapons, and soon Ames began the manufacture of swords for the federal government and for state militias. (6)
Two mill villages settled along the Chicopee River in northern Springfield were called Factory Village and Cabotville. Cabotville was where Nathan and James Ames eventually chose to establish their firm in 1834. The swords were stamped variously “NP Ames, Cutler, Springfield” and “Ames Mfg Co., Cabotville,” as the firm evolved, and the year the weapon was made. (7) In 1848 this most northern section of Springfield split off and became a separate town called Chicopee, and their swords were now etched with this name, just as it was on the gold presentation sword made for Mexican War figure Brigadier General John A. Quitman, presented to him by President James Knox Polk, ordered on April 18, 1848, when the new town of “Chicopee” was a week old.
By the time Chicopee became a town the Ames brothers had become leaders of the community. They made and donated the school bell for the high school. When the Third Congregational Church was built a stone’s throw from their property in 1834-1836, Nathan donated $5,000 for its construction, half his personal fortune. (8)
That was also the year fellow townsman Alonzo Phillips invented the phosphorus match, representing only one of many industries coming to life in that town and many technological innovations that sprung from that still very small community.
The Ames Company itself began a host of new product innovations based on research and experimentation. Nathan was instrumental in the experimentation in new techniques and advances in gun making. By 1844, the company was producing the flintlock, breech-loading Jenks Carbine, for which Nathan was awarded the Silver Medal by the Franklin Institute. (9)
“The nature of my invention,” Ames wrote to Burton of another experiment, “consists in the…construction of a barrel of steel or iron of a uniform bore, and exterior taper, without welding…by modes of drilling and rolling the metal.” (10)
“I fell (sic) pretty certain,” wrote Chief of Ordnance Bureau Captain Henry A. Wise, who had visited the famed Krupps works of Germany, “that your method of putting iron and steel together in truth as good, if not the same as Krupp’s.” (11)
Nathan traveled extensively on business and made several trips to Europe. On one occasion in London, a dental procedure in which was used a paste of probably silver and mercury would in time poison him and leave Nathan in hideous pain, and slowly dying. He would eventually relinquish his leadership of the firm to his younger brother, James, as his health deteriorated.
(Ames Company, date unknown. Edward Bellamy Memorial Association, Chicopee, MA)
By 1845, the railroad had come to Chicopee. The Republic of Texas was born, followed by the Mexican War, and by virtue of its government contracts for swords and side arms, Ames had a part in both events. It is interesting to note that the many of the members of the community, indeed in the state, did not support the war against Mexico. It would not the last time conscience clashed with business interests in the soon-to-be Town of Chicopee.
In the 1850s, several prominent farmers on Chicopee Street, which followed the Connecticut River northward from the village of Cabotville, were active players in secret rebellion against the Fugitive Slave Law as they allowed their homes to become stations on the Underground Railroad. These men were not the owners of the cotton mills which thrived on slave labor down South to produce their raw material, but presumably they were not more than a few pews away.
One local businessman whose conscience as regards slavery would later take a more violent turn was John Brown. He came to Springfield in 1846 to operate as a wool merchant and did business with Cabotville’s new Cabot Bank, established in May 1845. (12) John Brown owed $57,000 to the Cabot Bank from his miserably failing wool business. The Cabot Bank won a judgment against Brown. (13) John Brown left the area May 1849. (14)
While he was in Springfield, Brown received orator, author and former slave Frederick Douglass in his home. It may have been on the occasion when Douglass gave a lecture in Cabotville about his experiences, and it was with money from these touring lectures that he purchased his freedom.
Charles Dickens likewise spoke on another occasion, and “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” was performed in Cabot Hall. (15) The last Chicopee seems to have heard from John Brown was the letter written to Timothy W. Carter of the Massachusetts Arms Company in Chicopee Falls in February 1856 from Osawatomie, Kansas, requesting more carbines and ammunition to be shipped secretly. (16) James T. Ames, pillar of the Third Congregational Church, sold arms to both free-soilers and slavers. Conscience, conviction, and commerce wove a messy alliance.
Back at the Third Congregational Church of Cabotville was held the funeral of Nathan P. Ames in 1847. He was 43 years old when he died. According to The National Cyclopaedia, published in 1936 which contained scores of brief biographies of successful men of business and science, none of whom apparently were without gentlemanly virtues, Nathan and James were “men of exceptionally fine character and during their joint lives were deeply devoted to each other.” (17) Both were certainly men of great accomplishment, and with Nathan gone, the business, its enormous undertaking as well as its inherent commercial and philosophical consequences, was left on the shoulders of his younger brother, James Tyler Ames.
By 1849, the original capitalization sum for Ames of $30,000 had increased to $250,000. (18) A company of remarkable diversification, artwork was cast as early as 1835 when bronze statuary was created under Silas Mosman, who would cast the bronze doors of the east wing of the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. at the Ames Company, and would later include the “Minuteman” statue at the Lexington-Concord bridge, designed by Daniel Chester French, among his works. Along with works in brass and bronze, an iron foundry was added 1845, (19) and if the foundry was used for statuary, it was also meant for cannon.
By the Mexican War, the Ames Manufacturing Company’s main production had shifted to the making of arms, for the United States government and for foreign governments. The Chicopee Journal noted in September of 1854:
"The Ames Company of Chicopee have been engaged for
several months past in the manufacturing cannon, bombshells
and grape shot for His Most Serene Highness, Antonio Lopez
do Santa Ana. Of the last named article, two hundred tons
have been engaged, and we do not believe that the old, one-
legged humbug will have killed a hundred men after they are
all used up." (20)
Once again dictator of Mexico in between periods of exile, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna’s checkered relationship with his countrymen as well as with the United States did not prevent him from being a valued customer of the Ames Manufacturing Company.
It is interesting to note that though Ames had many contracts supplying weapons to state and town militias, besides the Federal Government, by the time of the political crisis of the Civil War that sent so many local civilian men into uniform, the fashion for town militia had faded in New England, certainly along with need for them. Chicopee’s Vital Records note that the Cabot Guards, their own town militia, received no appropriation of funds from the town in 1851, as they were about to disband. (21)
A few years earlier, the doomed Cabotville Chronicle took a break from lashing out at local industrialists to describe the military ball held at Cabot Hall in December, 1845 which “surpassed any thing of the kind we have ever seen in this village. The Hall was neatly and tastefully decorated…the music was the best that could be found this side of Boston or New York.” (22) The Hampden and Union Guards of Westfield also attended. Other than the community at last being seen free of Indian attack, it could also have been the distaste which many in town viewed the United States’ participation in the Mexican War which led to a mistrust and lack of enthusiasm for things with a military flare. Too, the old Yankee population with its colonial traditions was fading under new influences, like the Irish.
Most of Chicopee’s population of about 7,000, after its separation from Springfield in 1848, lived in Cabotville, and many of them were Irish immigrants huddled in the workers’ housing provided a stone’s throw from the mills by the factory owners.
"These factories employ 15,000 operators, many of whom are beautiful importations of the female sex from Erin’s Isle. The Ames Company employs 215 hands, and the Organization is second to none in Massachusetts." (23)
At the time of this 1857 Chicopee Journal article, the working day was 11 hours long, with a one-hour noon mealtime; in winter 7 a.m. to 7 p.m., and in summer 6:30 a.m. to 6:30 p.m. (24) The National Cyclopaedia reported of James, “As an employer, he was ahead of his time in enlightened treatment of his workers, with whom he was extremely popular.” (25) Whether or not this were true, the working conditions in his factory were certainly typical of the time.
James T. Ames lived in a brick house, also a stone’s throw away from his company. Ames’ mansion was built between 1844 and 1846. (26) It was a two-story brick house with a picket fence, built in the late Georgian style. Part of its treasures in later years when it became a museum were a bronze wall candelabra removed from the White House when gas lighting was installed, and an invitation to dinner from President Abraham Lincoln. (27)
Whether his trade was the by-product of an era or just capitalizing on it, Ames’ fortunes depended on political turbulence, and now there was plenty. With the coming political tensions in the year Abraham Lincoln would be elected President, the Federal Government passed legislation banning arms sales to states which threatened secession, but this would not go into effect until January 1861. Until then, Ames sold muskets and sabers to Southern militia, (28) but a shipment of gun making machinery sold to Virginia was diverted by Isaac Wright, Superintendent of the Springfield Armory early in 1861. (29)
When Virginia went with the Confederacy, so did James H. Burton, born in Virginia, who went to work at Harper’s Ferry Armory in 1846. In 1849, he had been promoted to Acting Master Armorer. Burton experimented with improved designs for Minié bullet. In 1854, he left Harpers Ferry and came to Chicopee to work with the Ames Company. A year later in 1855, accepted a five-year contract as Chief Engineer of the Royal Small Arms Manufactory in Enfield, England. In 1860, Burton contracted to be superintendent of the Richmond Armory, with machinery confiscated by the Confederacy from the Harpers Ferry Armory. (30)
Back in Chicopee, one of the last contacts of the days of town militia, Indian attacks and the fading Colonial veneer disappeared when Reuben Burt, soldier in the Revolutionary War, died August 8, 1860. Burt had also served in War of 1812, (31) another conflict like the Mexican War which had Whig versus Federalist coming to verbal blows and philosophical angst as to whether or not it was better or even right for Massachusetts to secede from the Union over it. Secession was apparently not so unthinkable then.
At the beginning of the Civil War, about 500 employees worked at Ames; later in the war, it grew to around 1,000. (32) According to author Robert V. Bruce, “From the start Lincoln liked rifled cannon. As early as April (1861) he helped the James T. Ames Company of Chicopee, Massachusetts, get a large order for rifled cannon.” (33)
Ames’ single largest contract was for one hundred mountain howitzers, costing the government $16,060. In 1861, four 12-pound howitzers were sold at 45 cents per pound, a total of 8,070 pounds and a total cost of $3,712.20. (34) The Ordnance Department was the largest customer Ames ever had, and meeting demand, while demand lasted, was Ames’ goal and every worker’s reason for living. Profit and patriotism were conveniently matched intentions, though most people in town, despite whatever lack of enthusiasm either for the military adventures of the government or for the best interests of the factory owner over the workers, felt compelled by the hoped-for restoration of the Union and the men like old Reuben Burt who had represented the honorable sacrifice of the Revolution, to become quite patriotic. They were eager to participate in the war with the usual naiveté of those far from the battle lines.
Occasionally, however, even in quiet Chicopee the discharge of cannon created casualties. As noted by the Chicopee Journal, on August 30, 1862:
“Mr. Marshall Hosley of this village, was badly injured
Wednesday afternoon just after five o’clock by the premature
discharge of a cannon. He was assisting in firing a salute on the
green in front of the Post Office…One hand is pretty badly burned,
and his arm has an ugly cut caused by the ramrod as it took its
hasty departure over the Ames Co.’s blacksmith shop to the north
side of the Chicopee river - a quarter of a mile distant…the sum
of $55 has been raised by subscription and presented to Mr. Hosley.” (35)
That ramrod joined several pounds of cannon shot on the pocked north bank of the river, where the Ames Company fired test rounds. Ames made various types of shell, shot and canister for the Ordnance Department as well.
Ames was best known, however, for its swords. Over one-third the total contracts for swords issued by the Ordnance Department during the Civil War went to the Ames Manufacturing Company, (36) almost 160,000 swords. (37) The workers were noted for their ability to produce 1,000 swords in a 24-hour shift. During the war, Ames introduced an uncommon night shift, but demands continued to be so great that the company found it necessary to import swords from abroad to fill U.S. government contracts. (38)
Swords were used to designate rank. They were drawn by officers when advancing in battle, or to direct the action. Cavalry troops used them as standard weapons. The swords were of various styles, lengths, and ornamentations. Naval swords were generally curved, more engraved with designs, and shorter than army swords. Swords for army non-commissioned soldiers were thin and unornamented. Foot soldiers had wider swords. The cavalry saber was long and slightly curved. The artillery officer’s sword was curved and wide. Officers’ swords were engraved with ornate designs, while enlisted men carried plain swords. (39)
Compliance with these orders was sometimes difficult. In a letter to Chief of Ordnance James W. Ripley, dated February 5, 1862, James T. Ames apologized for the delay of an order for 13,000 sabers, 2,000 more to New York, and 5,000 more to be delivered to “Jersey,” but for the disturbance caused by the Trent Affair. (40) The uproar which nearly brought Britain into the war over the imprisonment of two Confederate commissioners in Boston, taken on the high seas by Union vessel “San Jacinto” while en route to London was negotiated by Secretary of State William H. Seward. Ames’ difficulty was presumably a conflict with his source of raw materials from the Monway Iron Works in England. (41)
One of the most popular products Ames produced was the presentation sword, and many were ordered as rewards and tokens of esteem to officers after the Mexican War, including future Presidents Zachary Taylor and Franklin Pierce. (42) Many such swords would be produced for the Civil War as well, including the special gift sword made in 1864 for General Ulysses S. Grant. The Springfield Republican described the sword:
“The grasp and guard are ornamented with classical designs,
representing highly furnished heads of Jupiter, Mars, Mercury and
Minerva. The grasp is also inlaid with turtle shell, held in place by
gold studs…The pommel is finished…by a ring of diamonds, 14 in
number, and costing $400, which are set in pure gold. Just under
the circlet of diamonds is a shield with the motto, ‘Sic floret
There were other special orders, if less grand. A letter from one customer:
“At the time I got the sword for my son Robert, I spoke to
you about returning them at the close of his course at the Military
School, by making you a liberal compensation for their use.
The time has come, but I find he is unwilling to part with
them. So if you will be kind enough to Send Me the Bill by Mail….” (44)
Two weeks later, this customer, Mr. Woods of Enfield, Connecticut, thanked Ames for the swords that were
“…such a delight to the Young Lieutenant.
Please receive my profound acknowledgements for this last,
with a thankful remembrance of Your past favors.
I shall have the Articles appropriately engraved, and if the
cherished hopes for the future of My Boy are realized, it will be a
source of great Satisfaction that You have allowed me the priviledge
of handing down his name associated with Yours….” (45)
The company also produced bayonets and Bowie knives.
Over 700 men from Chicopee served in the war, perhaps enticed by rallies like the one held in Cabotville that same August of 1862.
One of the organizers of the rally was the Reverend Eli B. Clark of the First Congregational Church, who in the previous decade took part in Chicopee’s spur of the Underground Railroad. After speeches by Reverend Clark and others the Chicopee Journal noted,
“Several young men came forward and signed the roll - at the
close of the speaking. Mr. Fitzgerald offered $10 to the first two men
who would sign the roll, and the offer was accepted immediately…At
about 7 o’clock a procession was formed, and to music of fife and
drum marched in the direction of Chicopee Falls to meet citizens
from that part of town. It was estimated that on its return the
procession numbered at least 400 men. The procession marched to
the Music Hall amid ringing of the bells…” (46)
The town’s high school principal, Harvard graduate George D. Robinson was called on for a speech and he announced that while he himself would not enlist, he would pay to send a man in his place.
(Chicopee Public Library "History of Chicopee" 1948)
In Chicopee, James T. Ames and his wife Ellen, who directed the local Sanitary Commission committee, (47) led no one into battle, but from a thousand miles behind the front lines, they were perhaps sometimes bewildered to be placed in the heat of war fervor. Ames could not profit from the war without being expected to also assume a leadership position among the town’s citizens, whose energy must be put to work for the greater good, not merely his own good. It was yet another contradiction, another quiver in the tightrope Ames seemed destined to walk.
Ames also purchased a military substitute for himself, though he would likely have been exempt from military service. (48) It is unlikely that James T. Ames ever met his substitute, a 19-year old named Pinckney Jourdan, who was mustered into the 38th U.S. Colored Infantry on September 2, 1864 in Newport News, Virginia, having enlisted the day before in Norfolk for a term of three years. His regiment served in operations against Petersburg, the Battle of Chaffin’s Farm and New Market Heights, the Battle of Fair Oaks, and eventually the occupation of Richmond. The regiment was thereafter moved to Texas. Private Jourdan survived the war and was mustered out with his regiment on January 25, 1867. (49) As his service was purchased by a man from Chicopee, Massachusetts, he is considered to be a recruit credited to Chicopee. There is a plaque with his name at the African American Civil War Memorial in Washington, D.C.
J. M. Forman, Secretary of the U.S. Military Hospital, Western Sanctuary Commission wrote to Mrs. Ames from St. Louis, Missouri in January of 1862:
“Your three boxes of valuable hospital stores from the ladies of
Chicopee were opened by me several days ago, and the contents are
already going out to the camps of Hospitals, to redeem and comfort
our sick and wounded soldiers.” (50)
“Mr. Ames called on his way to the depot this morning,” wrote Annie Collins from Washington, D.C., “and left the articles sent by him. How I should like to get some of those flannels down to Sheridan’s poor suffering boys.” (51)
Major General Philip H. Sheridan’s troops were then engaged in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia.
The New York City draft riots were a road block to completing a certain Ames order for swords. In a letter the State of New York Quartermaster General S.U. Talcott explained the canceling of his order due to the confusion and melee in New York City, where crowds of draft protesters, mostly Irish immigrants, attacked abolitionists, Negroes, and seized the Second Avenue Armory in a series of bloody riots.
“When your agent left the Governor’s quarters…during the week
of the riot in this city, for the purpose of obtaining permission of the
Government to remove the sabres from Governors Island, I lost sight
of (the agent) and did not see (him) again, or receive a communication
"I regret to say that the State has since purchased sabres
sufficient for present purposes. Any future supply that may be
ordered I will make known to you in season.” (52)
The war was over for for Chicopee when Reverend Clark and prominent Chicopee Street farmer and church deacon Marshall Pease (53) rang the bell of the First Congregational Church on Chicopee Street at news of the fall of Richmond. Over at the High School on Grape Street, a block away from the brick home of James T. Ames, students heard the ringing of the church bells and were dismissed from class. (54)
Mary DeEtte Chapin recalled the moment in a letter written in 1942, “I was a senior in the Chicopee High School…we were startled by the ringing of many bells, apparently all over town. The news spread and school was dismissed. Some boys went and rang the school bell as well and joined the others in the grand jubilation.” (55) That school bell was the one Nathan P. Ames had donated, cast in the Ames foundry.
That spring the war ended, James T. Ames mourned the death of his 23-year old daughter Ellen Maria, who died June 7, 1865. (56) The business correspondence which continued to cross his desk now included black-edged letters of condolence. Despite the ebullience of the church bells, and the role his factory played in contributing to the Union victory, it was a season of fatigue and death for the Ames family.
Perhaps the only thing unchanged for Ames was that he and Burton were able to resume their correspondence and their friendship now that the war was over. Burton had been taken prisoner along with the Confederate garrison at Macon, Georgia in April 1865. He subsequently signed an Oath of Allegiance and in October granted a pardon by President Andrew Johnson. (57)
(N. Ames grave. Lynch photo)
However, now that the war was over, the Ames Manufacturing Company quickly became an anachronism in an age when swords were turned to ploughshares. The arms and ordnance division, which diversified into the manufacture of bicycles, sewing machines and lighthouse equipment, nevertheless went out of business at the turn of the century. By that time there were no longer any Ames family members involved in the company. What was left of the sword division, like much of Chicopee’s industry, was destroyed by the Great Depression. That firm was sold to an Ohio regalia manufacturer and moved to Ohio.
(J. Ames grave. Lynch photo)
The home of James T. Ames was turned into a museum for a short while, where the invitation to dinner at the White House from President Lincoln was among the articles displayed. (58) The mansion was razed in 1960 (59), and there is little in Chicopee now to recall those days of the gas-lit foundry working the night shift during the Civil War, when the loss of southern arsenals forced the Federal government to rely more on independent manufacturers.
One small token, one gesture to the past remains. Today, the two high schools in the City of Chicopee play an annual football rivalry between them. The trophy they pass back and forth every year to the winner of the game is an Ames sword. (Lynch photo)
1. Letter from Alfred Barbour, Supt. of Harper’s Ferry Armory to James T. Ames, December 17, 1860. Ames Collection, Springfield Library and Museums Association, Springfield, Mass.
2. Robert V. Bruce, Lincoln and the Tools of War (NY: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1956), 101.
3.John D. Hamilton. The Ames Sword Company, 1829-1935. (Lincoln, RI: Andrew Mowbray Publishers, 1994), 158.
4.Collins G. Burnham, “The City of Chicopee,” The New England Magazine, Vol. 24, Issue No. 3, May 1898.
5. U. S. National Park Service website-Harpers Ferry: www.nps.gov/hafe/burton.htm.
6. Hamilton, 14.
7. Hamilton, 110, and Springfield Daily News, June 12, 1958.
8. The National Cyclopedia of American Biography (NY: James T. White & Company, 1936), 241.
9. Hamilton, 70, and Andrew F. Lustytk, “The Jenks Carbine,” The Gun Report, October 1964, 13.
10. Letter from Ames to James H. Burton, undated. AC.
11. Letter from Chief of Ordnance Bureau Henry A. Wise to Ames, October 1, 1865. AC.
13. Stephen B. Oates, To Purge This Land with Blood (NY: Harper & Row Publishers, 1970), 76.
14. Oates, 67.
15. Burnham, 95.
16. Letter from John Brown to T. W. Carter, February 20, 1856, reprinted Shlakman, Economic History of a Factory Town - A Study of Chicopee, Massachusetts, (NY, 1969) 80.
17. The National Cyclopaedia, 242.
18. Orra L. Stone, History of Massachusetts Industries, Vol I (Boston: S.J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1930), 631.
19. Stone, 631.
20. Chicopee Journal, September 2, 1854.
21. Chicopee, Massachusetts Town Reports 1851, 12.
22. The Cabotville Chronicle, December 27, 1845, 2.
23. Chicopee Journal, June 6, 1857, 1, col. 4.
24. Andrew F. Lustytk, “The Jenks Carbine,” The Gun Report, December, 1964, 14.
25. The National Cyclopaedia, 242.
26. Springfield Daily Republican, September 18, 1937, 8.
27. The WPA Guide to Massachusetts, (NY: Pantheon Books, rpt 1983), 210.
28. Hamilton, 157.
29. Hamilton, 158.
30. Harpers Ferry National Historic Park website.
31. City of Chicopee, Veteran Graves Registration. Chicopee Public Library.
32. Hamilton, 158.
33. Bruce, 48.
34. Hamilton, 238.
35. Chicopee Journal, August 30, 1862, 2, col. 5.
36. Hamilton, 160.
37. Hamilton, 159.
38. Francis A. Lord, The Civil War Collector’s Encyclopedia (NY: Castle Books, 1965), 275.
39. C.B. Colby, Civil War Weapons-Small Arms and Artillery of the Blue and Gray (NY: Coward, McCann, Geoghegan, 1962), 26.
40. Letter from Ames to Chief of Ordnance for the Union Army, Lieutenant Colonel James W. Ripley, February 5, 1862, AC.
41. Letter from John Marshall of the Monway Iron Works, Near Wednesbury, England, January 26, 1861, AC.
42. Hamilton, 114, 129.
43. Springfield Republican, February 27, 1864, 8.
44. Letter from Mr. Woods of Enfield, Connecticut to Ames, September 9, 1863. AC.
45. Letter from Woods to Ames, September 24, 1863. AC.
46. Chicopee Journal, August 30, 1862, p. 2 col 1.
47. Chicopee Herald, May 29, 1948, p. 3.
48. United States War Department, The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series III, Vol. V, 915.
49. Massachusetts Soldiers, Sailors, and Marines in the Civil War, Vol. VII, 368.
50. Letter from J. M. Forman, Secretary of the U.S. Military Hospital, Western Sanctuary Commission, St. Louis, Missouri to Mrs. Ames, January 28, 1862, AC.
51. Letter to Mrs. Ames from Annie A.M. Collins, Washington, D.C., October 29, 1864. AC.
52. Letter from S.U. Talcott, Quartermaster General of New York to Ames, August 5, 1863. AC.
53. Cabotville Journal, August 6, 1853, 2.
54. DiCarlo, 181.
55. DiCarlo, 181.
56. Maple Grove Cemetery headstone, Chicopee, Massachusetts.
57. Harpers Ferry National Historic Park website.
58. The WPA Guide to Massachusetts, 210.
59. Springfield Daily News, September 3, 1960, 6.